Risk Game Modification: Review

This post serves as a review of my experience creating a board game for the first time as a required component for completion of the Digital Media major at The University of Wollongong.


My first experience creating a board game was a remarkably intense experience. I have never been a huge fan of board games, and as a result, I immediately felt out of my depth when attempting this task. I decided to use my maiden attempt at game design to modify the classic board game Risk. The primary reason for doing so is that Risk is one game that I have always thoroughly enjoyed playing.

The concept of game-modification can be described as being a process of making modifications, or “mods” to an existing game text. (Postigo, 2007) The process of modding can range from changing the physics of a virtual game experience to changing the in-game characteristics in order to create a new experience. (Postigo, 2007) In my case, I chose to modify Risk to attempt an ideological shift away from the pursuit of conquest that is a fundamental characteristic of the original game.

My goal was to try and retain as many characteristics of the original game as possible, while at the same time reimagining the text to portray an experience that depicts elements of global sustainability. In order to achieve this, I attempted to alter the rules of the original game in a way that shifts the objective away from conquering the map, and towards an objective of maintaining and sustaining a players chosen continent. The idea of defining an ideological frame within a game text is not my original concept. Rather, it has been comprehensively defined and explored by games scholar Hector Postigo (2006). I attempted to channel Postigo’s ideas a focus my attention solely on the ideological characteristics of the gaming experience.

I have written previously about my belief that the pursuit of conquest by western nations (and allies) has created untold pain for indigenous populations. Essentially my belief is that the pursuit of expansionism has previously resulted in a desire for global conquest at the expense of less wealthy nation-states. Perhaps coincidentally, the game Risk provides a relatable commentary on the concept of conquest, and for these reasons I wanted to use this opportunity make create a subtle commentary of my own about the value of global sustainable practices.

Maybe it is slightly ironic that my attempt at creating a sustainable alternative to Risk was not as convincing as the original game. Nevertheless, I found that reimagining Risk was an excellent opportunity for me to understand how board games can provide a commentary on real-world political issues. Another such example of board games mimicking a depressing real world situation is the wildly famous (and ever divisive) game of Monopoly. As much as it divides opinions and causes families to temporarily hate each other it does provide a simple, yet elegant, commentary on the real-world economic structures of which we are all held captive. A worthy analysis of this concept can be found here.

In summary, It was frustrating that I was unable to create a convincing rebuttal to Risk’s dystopian pursuit of conquest, but regardless my first attempt at creating a board game served as a valuable lesson in discovering the ways that games harness real-world situations and realities and recreate them in a seamless yet thought-provoking manner.


Bogost, I., 2006 ‘Videogames and Ideological Frames’, Popular Communication,4(3), pp. 165-183

Postigo, H (2007) “Of Mods and Modders: Chasing Down the Value of Fan-Based Digital Game Modification.” Games and Culture 2: 300-13


Making Things Easy: Virtual Reality – Episode 2

This “Episode” of Making Things Easy: Virtual Reality is a purely text-based post.  I have not been working in Unity over the past week, instead, I have spent considerable time researching different aspects of the project in order to enhance my theoretical understanding of virtual reality design. Here I will convey the information I have gathered over the past two weeks, including my recent epiphany about 3D scanning in virtual reality design, the history of bottle design, and lastly I will share some of my recent theoretical research on VR and how the technology is helping us to raise existential questions about the creation of our reality.

3D Scanning

Last week I was watching YouTube videos regarding virtual reality and I began pondering how efficient it could be to “scan” a physical beer bottle and import the scanned file into Unity, rather than redesigning the entire bottle within the software. As it turns out this is entirely possible, which at first was an exciting realization. As I continued to research the relationship between 3D scanning and VR I began to think I may have hacked my own project. I assumed 3D scanning would involve less labor than painstakingly designing the whole bottle using Unity software.  I also presumed that employing 3D scanning technology could save labor and perhaps enhance the semblance of the VR bottle design to the original bottle (keep in mind that I am inexperienced with Unity software, or CAD software in general).

Evidently, it is common practice to 3D scan a physical object (such as a beer bottle) and archives it in a virtual reality environment by simply dragging the scanned file into a Unity project. A number of limitations exist however that can make this process harder than it initially sounds.  Two of the key limitations are A) the high cost of 3D scanners, and B) that 3D scanners can produce substandard quality representations of an object. Both of these limitations seemed worthy of my consideration, and after deliberation, with University staff I have concluded that using a mixed-method of 3D scanning and Unity VR animation design is the ideal way to proceed. In summary, what I now intend to attempt is to 3D scan the basic outline of a beer bottle, place the scanned file in Unity, and use Unity design software to render the image and create a more accurate representation of the beer bottle than would otherwise be possible by using just a 3D scanned file.



Bottle Design

Considering one of the fundamental aims of this project is to design a bottle in virtual reality I figured to beneficial for me to research the history of glass bottle design. I ended up conducting a fair bit of research and obtained a decent introduction to the history of glass bottle production. Whilst conducting research I came across this infographic that quite eloquently depicts the history of the glass bottle. Rather than attempting to curate the information I have sourced into an awkward paragraph it seemed more productive to just share this beautiful infographic, created by Oberk Packaging Solutions.


glass bottle infographic

Virtual Reality Theory

As discussed in my previous post I am endeavoring as part of this project to gain (and disseminate) a better understanding of the relationship between virtual reality and cyber cultures. Part of this aim is to understand the potential paradigm shifts that can occur, will occur, or are occurring as a result of virtual reality technology being introduced into our affairs.

One of the more fascinating (and convincing) philosophical discussions I have encountered so far has been a research paper titled ‘Are You Living in a Computer Simulation?’ by Nick Bostrom. The paper, published in Philosophical Quarterly (2003) discusses Bostrom’s hypothesis that either A) The portion of civilizations that reach a post-human stage is close to zero; B) The number of post-human civilisations that would be interested in creating and running “ancestor-simulations” is close to zero, or C) we are almost certainly living in a computer simulation.

Hypothesis ‘C’ is perhaps the most interesting of the three. This hypothesis suggests that we are already living inside a computer simulation. It seems counter-intuitive at first, but after consideration and research, the concept seems entirely plausible. The reason that this relates to virtual reality is that Bostrom’s simulation reality is essentially the imagination of a virtual reality simulator that is indistinguishable from “real life”. As I began to explore this idea I started to ponder the idea that we may be in fact living inside Bostrom’s simulation reality. In fact, we might be on our way to creating a simulated reality of our own by way of totally immersive virtual reality technology. If this were to be the case It seems it would result in the creation of an inception type paradigm in which a superior being has created a simulated reality, and that simulated reality then creates a simulated reality of its own, and so on and so forth. Where we fit into this simulated-reality-inception paradigm I have no idea, yet the idea seems no less plausible than Bostrom’s “we are almost certainly living in a computer simulation” hypothesis. For more Information please take a look at my Prezi presentation about the philosophy and history of virtual reality technology.

Next week I will aim to publish a video in which I am either attempting to 3D scan a glass bottle, start designing the glass bottle in Unity, or both.

Game Pitch: Risk – Sustainability Edition

As part of my studies in the Digital Games Cultures course at The University of Wollongong, I have been assigned a task in which the aim is to develop a board game. I have long considered the classic table-top game Risk to be the ultimate board game, and with that in mind, I have decided to create a modified version with an alternate ideological objective.

Modification or ‘modding’ of games is described by gaming scholar Dr. Hector Postigo (2007) as being the act of making modifications, or “mods” to a game. “These mods can range from changes in the physics of the virtual world to total conversions in game play that can lead to changes in story line and game type. (Postigo, 2007) In a sense, the modification of a board game echo’s media scholar Henry Jenkins’ notion of participatory media, whereby fans and programmers are converging in their roles of creating and consuming content. (Jenkins, 2006) In this context, I will endeavor to actively participate in the creation of a game by modifying a game that is already in existence.

The term ‘modding’ is often reserved to describe the act of modifying digital games, but in this article, the term will be used specifically to describe the reinterpretation and alteration of a physical table-top board game style gaming experience.

Risk is the preeminent strategy game of global domination. In the classic Risk, players are battling to conquer the world by capturing territories and defeating their opponents. A player is victorious once all other opponents are eliminated and all territories captured. The quest for conquest in Risk is interesting because it mirrors the relentless pursuit of conquest and global domination that we have seen throughout the history of civilisation, particularly in the west. Prominent examples include the British conquest of Australia in 1788, the Spanish conquest of Mexico, beginning in 1510, and perhaps most notably the Colombian conquest of North America, beginning in 1492. I note here that I for the purpose of simplicity I have chosen to refer to each of these instances by using post-colonial country branding; no disrespect or insensitivity was intended by doing so.

As much as I enjoy playing Risk, it has always found it frustrating that the game creates a narrative which promotes the notion of conquest. In each instance mentioned above, conquest has resulted in pervasive and (mostly) negative consequences for original inhabitants of the lands. For instance, both Australian and North American indigenous populations were decimated to the point of near annihilation due to British conquest, and the region now known as Mexico has seen a massive exploitation of natural resources and degradation of indigenous culture and heritage. With this in mind, I have decided to create a version of Risk in which the object of the game is to settle on and sustainably inhabit a chosen continent. Many of the original characteristics of Risk will be maintained, but this modified version will embody an ideological shift away from conquest and toward sustainability.


Original Risk Map


The first step in modifying Risk game is to reformat the map. The reason for doing this is to create more of a level playing field, so to speak. The original map for risk consists of six continents, each of which has a different number of territories, ranging from four in Australia to eleven in Asia (see map above). I have deconstructed the map and reshaped it so that each of the continents now contains an equal number of territories, thus eliminating the disparity between each of the continents (see images below). In gaming terms, this type of modification is known as mapping. The aim of the “mapper” is to design new levels, or “maps,” for a game. (Postigo, 2007)


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Designing the egalitarian Risk map



image (3)
Amended Risk map with an equal number (7) territories on each continent


The second ideological shift away from the classic Risk is to alter the game mechanics. In the classic version of Risk, the objective is to conquer the entire world. In this new version, players will endeavor to inhabit one chosen continent and create a sustainable environment. Players will still have the option to attempt to conquer other continents, but the incentive to do will be diminished. For instance, a player who has successfully inhabited the continent of South America will find it difficult to then conquer North America, as the characteristics of North America are vastly different to those of South America. If the player inhabiting South America attempts to attack North America they will face foreign diseases, a lack of agricultural knowledge, and military insufficiencies. This challenges are not impossible to overcome, yet will require the South American continent to have first created a sustainable environment on their own continent before they can confidently to attack another territory.

The primary objective here is to inhabit a continent that can withstand attack from opponents, forge a sustainable ecosystem, and maintain the health of the continent. Victory ensues when a player can successfully manage to overcome these challenges and prove to be sustainable for a series of three consecutive turns. Other continents may see a specific continent is coming close to victory and form informal alliances in order to weaken the continent that is close to achieving sustainability. This mechanic is similar to the informal alliances that may be formed in Risk, yet the object is to weaken, rather than to kill.

Other rules and objectives will be teased out further into the design phase and during the playtest phase of game development. This post serves as an introduction to the ideological function of the game. Any suggestions or critiques are welcome and encouraged.


Postigo, H (2007) “Of Mods and Modders: Chasing Down the Value of Fan-Based Digital Game Modification.” Games and Culture 2: 300-13.

Jenkins, H (2006b). Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press

Making Things Easy: Virtual Reality -Episode 1


Welcome to episode one of ‘Making Things Easy’. This project follows my journey as I dive head first into the world of virtual reality animation.

Episode one essentially gives an introduction to the project. I intend to document my whole experience and create a series of short videos that depict my research and learning processes. I hope that this series can serve as an introduction to VR for people who have no experience with the technology and are curious to learn more about how to develop basic virtual reality animation.

So far I have only just begun tinkering with VR so this video essentially is a depiction of my thoughts and experiences as I download the required software (Unity) and begin to set-up the program to create an animation.


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My first creation using Unity software, titled “The Cube”. 


Over the next six weeks, I will upload more videos to this blog and produce short posts that explain my thinking, as well as ideas that I formulate surrounding the relationship between virtual reality and cybercultures. It seems so far that virtual reality technology is entirely different to any other design projects I have attempted. Trying to create a virtual reality requires a new mode of thinking for me, as I am trying to design an immersive experience, rather than a simple  2D or 3D CAD image. I suspect that virtual reality is creating a paradigm shift within cyberculture. This idea I look forward to exploring further as this project progresses.

Please leave any feedback or suggestions in the comments section below

Project Proposal: Virtual Reality

I’m coming to the end of my time as a digital media student, with less than one semester of full-time study remaining at the University of Wollongong (UOW). Over the past little while I have spent considerable time stressing out about what I am going to do with my life, and whether or not I have actually learned anything of value during my time at UOW. Luckily for me, I was coerced into creating this blog at the commencement of my studies, and throughout the past few years I have proceeded to publish any and all of my work here. As a result, I (and anyone else for that matter) am now able to look back and see what I have learned.  It seems that I have learned quite a lot and that my understanding of the media is much greater than when I commenced my bachelor degree. Still, the feeling remains that I have much more to learn. In a vain attempt to try and boost my skill set before I graduate I have decided to use the flexibility afforded by the course framework to train myself In a skill that I believe will prove both interesting and beneficial to my future as a media professional.


As was the case last year when I attempted to learn JavaScript, I have again chosen to research an emerging digital media technology that I believe will be prominent in the media landscape of the future. After deliberation with both university staff and the Twitterverse I have decided, somewhat hesitantly, to attempt to create a virtual reality (VR) experience using Unity software.


I was inspired to create a digital artefact using VR because in 2017 we are living in the moment where VR is about to become mainstream technology. This is partly because the falling costs of producing and consuming VR are making it possible for more people to access the technology. Technologies such as Google Cardboard are emerging which is far cheaper ($15.00 AUD) than the typical console devices like the Oculus Rift and HTC Vive. The high price of headsets combined with a high barrier to entry makes the Rift and the HTC Vive a hard sell for a lot of people. As the price is coming down it seems the uptake of VR technology is becoming ever more widespread. I feel that If my prediction of VR becoming mainstream is correct then it will be important for me, as a media professional, to have a better-than-introductory understanding of the technology.
I plan to learn-by-doing as I research VR.  I am to create a YouTube series that documents me attempting to create a VR animation in Unity. VR allows people to create and experience entire computer-generated worlds, but in this instance I will be attempting something much more simple (given that I am a beginner). I will simply be attempting to create a virtual beer bottle sitting on a virtual table.


I have chosen to attempt this creation in the Unity platform in Unity as my preliminary research suggests that Unity is the industry standard VR design software. On top of this I found that Unity is free to download which is highly beneficial for a struggling uni student such as myself. As I am totally inexperienced with Unity software I am hoping that I am able to learn to use Unity and create this project in an 8-week time frame. All successes and failures will be documented and I will be creating a series of YouTube vlogs to document my experience. The blogs will serve as a diary of my research, as well as providing viewers with an opportunity to learn with me as I undertake this endeavorur. I will attempt to upload the videos to my blog on a fortnightly basis, with a brief description current progress. My end goal is to have published a series of videos that can be used as tutorials for budding amateur VR enthusiasts, whilst simultaneously documenting my research methods and creative process.

image (1)

At this time, I have gone as far as downloading Unity and making initial sketches to try and visualise my VR beer bottle. My next post will contain the first YouTube video and will  also include details and links for people wishing to begin creating VR for themselves.

Can I Access The Internet In Bali?

Recently as I was planning on travelling Bali, Indonesia, with my close friends. As I was planning the trip I considered whether or not it would be wise to bring my laptop. When considering this decision it occurred to me that I had no idea whether I could even access the internet in Bali. I had never travelled to Bali before and my knowledge about internet access in Indonesia was very limited.

I decided to create a cartoon to discuss my autoethnographic (lack of) understanding about Balinese internet connectivity, before travelling to Bali, and then once I arrived, I could create a photo essay to capture the internet capabilities on the island. The result is this video – shown below – that depicts my initial thoughts and assumptions on the topic, in cartoon form. The cartoon is accompanied by a photo essay which highlights my initial encounter with Balinese internet accessibility.

A Reflection On Autoethnographic E-waste Musings


A couple of weeks ago I shared an autoethnographic post that detailed my initial thoughts and assumptions on the matter of e-waste. Since then I have given considerable thought to the topic and conducted some introductory research to help me better understand issues relating to e-waste. This follow-up post serves as a sort of reflection about my initial encounter. As was the case with the previous post, here I will employ autoethnographic methodology in order place myself squarely within the area of study.

I opened my previous account by noting that over the years I have routinely seen numerous electronic devices replaced by superior technology. My observation included a supposition that rapid advancements in technology is resulting in digital electronic devices becoming obsolete at an accelerated rate. After conducting some research, I have concluded that this assumption appears reasonable. The rates in which technology is being superseded can be explained by Gordon Moore, whose 1976 “Moore’s Law”correctly anticipated a doubling every year in the number of components per integrated circuit in digital electronic devices. Advancements in digital electronics are strongly linked to Moore’s law: quality-adjusted microprocessor prices, memory capacity, sensors and even the number and size of pixels in digital cameras. Moore’s law indicates to me that devices are rapidly becoming obsolete because every two years’ as new devices are becoming available that are twice as powerful. As a side note, it as interesting to find that obsolescence isn’t limited to hardware. Evidence of software obsolescence is also widespread. For example, an obsolescence analysis of a GPS radio for a U.S Army helicopter found that a hardware change that required revising even a single line of code would result in a $2.5 million expense before the helicopter could be deemed safe for flight.

Moore’s law does help me to confirm that devices are becoming obsolete and to conceptualise the frequently at which it occurs, however, it has not provided me with a clear understanding of what happens to technological devices once they are replaced. My own experiences with disposing of obsolete electronic devices are varied. As stated in my previous post, I purchase a new mobile phone approximately every two years — once the previous model becomes obsolete. My old phones are currently laying idol in a draw attached to my bedside table. Until I began researching this topic I had made no plans whatsoever to dispose of these devices, nor have I considered replacing or repurposing them. I also upgrade my computer every 2-3 years. Unlike my old phones, I have previously thrown my old laptops away in the garbage bin. Never have I considered where the computer ends up after I throw it in the bin. If I had to guess I would imagine they all ended up in landfills. This, of course, is just my personal experience with discarding electronics. The issue of where technology goes to die in a broader sense is a rather complicated and interesting reality. I have sourced research that confirms my assumption that a lot of it ends up in China. In fact, China is both the world’s largest exporter of electronic goods and importer of waste electronic equipment. It is estimated that approximately 70% of the world’s e-waste is sent to China. According to official statistics, more than 40 million tons of e-waste was imported to China in 2010, with an industrial output value of around 36.3 billion AUD. The largest of all e-waste sites is located in southeast of the country, in the village of Guiyu, in Guangdong Province.

E-waste deposit in Guiyu, China.

China, and more specifically the Guangdong province, can aptly be named the home of e-waste. Confirming this assumption has raised more questions within me. Why is all this waste being sent to China? Is this practice legal? What happens once devices result in China?  I looked up Guangdong province on Google Maps and immediately realised something surprising: I have been there before! When I was fifteen I visited Shenzhen, Guangdong, with a friend and his father who resides in Hong Kong. I remember walking the streets of Shenzhen with my friend and his Father Craig, who, after living in Hong Kong for over a decade, had a good understanding Chinese culture. This was ten years ago but my memory of that experience is vivid. I recall being shocked by the insane level of poverty that I witnessed as we wondered the streets on our first night in the city. Beggars lined the sidewalks throughout Shenzhen and I remember my heart sinking as we passed a beggar woman laying in the street with a newborn baby. I had never experienced this level of poverty in Australia and I found it very confronting. I wanted to give the beggar woman and her child some money, but Craig warned me against such a gesture. I couldn’t see the harm in trying to help this poor woman so ignored his advice and tossed some coins in a hat that was placed next to the woman and her child. We continued walking down the street and after a minute I turned around and saw something that I will never forget: A large group of around fifty people, closing in on me, begging for money. The feeling was tense and we were forced to rush away to escape the hoards of people. It was a frightening experience but nonetheless an interesting initiation to the reality of poverty in China.

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Guangdong province, China. Highlighted are the areas of Shenzhen and Guiyu. Image credit: Google Maps

My experience with visiting Shenzhen, coupled with what I have read about e-waste, leads me to assume that poverty is a reason that many of the world’s discarded electronic devices end up in China. This will require further investigation but I am now very interested in gearing this project specifically towards understanding more about the correlations between poverty the culture of e-waste in Guangdong province. I still intend to look into the processes of planned obsolescence, as I discussed in my previous post, but for now, I will be focusing primarily on e-waste in Guangdong.